FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQs) FOR PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINATION

AMONG VULNERABLE MAKATIZENS

IN THE CITY OF MAKATI

Overview

Pneumococcal disease is a name for any infection caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus. It can cause many types of illnesses and some of these can be life threatening. We may have heard of pneumonia, which is an infection of the lungs. Many different bacteria, viruses, and even fungi can cause pneumonia. Pneumococcus is one of the most common causes of severe pneumonia. Pneumococcal infections can range from ear and sinus infections to meningitis and bloodstream infections. Pneumococcal bacteria spread from person-to-person by direct contact with respiratory secretions, like saliva or mucus. Anyone can get pneumococcal disease, but some people are at greater risk for disease than others. Being at a certain age or having some medical conditions can put you at an increased risk for pneumococcal disease.

Children at increased risk for Pneumococcal disease include those:

  • Younger than 2-year-old
  • Who have certain illnesses (sickle cell disease, HIV infection, diabetes, immune compromising conditions, nephrotic syndrome, or chronic heart, lung, kidney, or liver disease)
  • With cochlear implants or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks (escape of the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord)

Adults at risk for Pneumococcal disease:

  • Adults 65 years or older are at increased risk for pneumococcal disease.
  • Some adults 19 through 64 years old are also at increased risk for pneumococcal disease, including those:

    • With chronic illnesses (chronic heart, liver, kidney, chronic obstructive lung disease, emphysema, asthma, diabetes or alcoholism)
    • With conditions that weaken the immune system (HIV/AIDS, cancer, or damaged/absent spleen)
    • With cochlear implants or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks (escape of the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord)
    • Who smoke cigarettes

According to the latest Department of Health (DOH) Field Health Service Information System (FHSIS) reported a comparative morbidity data on 2017 and 2018 showed Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (ALRTI) and Pneumonia as the 3rd leading cause of morbidity having total cases of 481,561 and 503,884 respectively or 4.6% increase in cases. The report also showed total deaths of 57,210 in 2017 contributing 10% in total deaths.2 The city of Makati, being the country’s financial hub is not spared from such illness. Local data showed total cases of 1,738 in 2018 and 1,666 in 2019 with 412 and 617 reported deaths respectively.

There are vaccines to help prevent pneumococcal disease. The pneumococcal vaccine protects against serious and potentially fatal pneumococcal infections. It is also known as the pneumonia vaccine.

Who are at higher risk of developing Pneumococcal disease?

Younger than 2-year-old

  • Who have certain illnesses (sickle cell disease, HIV infection, diabetes, immune compromising conditions, nephrotic syndrome, or chronic heart, lung, kidney, or liver disease)
  • With cochlear implants or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks (escape of the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord)

Adults at risk for Pneumococcal disease:

  • Adults 65 years or older are at increased risk for pneumococcal disease.
  • Some adults 19 through 64 years old are also at increased risk for pneumococcal disease, including those:

    • With chronic illnesses (chronic heart, liver, kidney, chronic obstructive lung disease, emphysema, asthma, diabetes or alcoholism)
    • With conditions that weaken the immune system (HIV/AIDS, cancer, or damaged/absent spleen)
    • With cochlear implants or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks (escape of the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord)
    • Who smoke cigarettes

How does Pneumococcal disease transmitted?

Pneumococcal bacteria spread from person-to-person by direct contact with respiratory secretions, like saliva or mucus. Many people, especially children, have the bacteria in their nose or throat at one time or another without being ill. Doctors call this “carriage” and do not know why it only rarely leads to sickness.

What are the symptoms and complications of Pneumococcal disease?

There are many types of pneumococcal disease. Symptoms and complications depend on the part of the body that is infected.

Pneumococcal pneumonia (lung infection) is the most common serious form of pneumococcal disease. Symptoms include:

  • Fever and chills
  • Cough
  • Rapid breathing or difficulty breathing
  • Chest pain

Older adults with pneumococcal pneumonia may experience confusion or low alertness, rather than the more common symptoms listed above.

Pneumococcal meningitis is an infection of the tissue covering the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms include:

  • Stiff neck
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Photophobia (eyes being more sensitive to light)
  • Confusion

In babies, meningitis may cause poor eating and drinking, low alertness, and vomiting.

Pneumococcal bacteremia is a blood infection. Symptoms include:

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Low alertness

Sepsis is a complication caused by the body’s overwhelming and life-threatening response to an infection, which can lead to tissue damage, organ failure, and death. Symptoms include:

  • Confusion or disorientation
  • Shortness of breath
  • High heart rate
  • Fever, shivering, or feeling very cold
  • Extreme pain or discomfort
  • Clammy or sweaty skin

Pneumococcus bacteria cause up to half of middle ear infections (otitis media). Symptoms include:

  • Ear pain
  • A red, swollen ear drum
  • Fever
  • Sleepiness

Complications- Most pneumococcal infections are mild. However, some can be deadly or result in long-term problems, such as brain damage or hearing loss.

Meningitis is the most severe type of invasive pneumococcal disease. Of children younger than 5 years old who get pneumococcal meningitis, about 1 out of 15 dies of the infection. The chance of death from pneumococcal meningitis is higher among elderly patients. Others may have long-term problems, such as hearing loss or developmental delay.

Bacteremia is a type of invasive pneumococcal disease that infects the blood. About 1 out of 100 children younger than 5 years old with this bloodstream infection die of it. The chance of death from pneumococcal bacteremia is higher among elderly patients.

Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that can cause mild to severe illness in people of all ages. Complications of pneumococcal pneumonia include:

  • Infection of the space between membranes that surround the lungs and chest cavity (empyema)
  • Inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart (pericarditis)
  • Blockage of the airway that allows air into the lungs (endobronchial obstruction), with collapse within the lungs (atelectasis) and collection of pus (abscess) in the lungs.

About 5 out of 100 people with non-invasive pneumococcal pneumonia will die from it, but that rate may be higher among elderly patients. Doctors consider pneumococcal pneumonia non-invasive if there’s not bacteremia or empyema occurring at the same time.

What Pneumococcal serotypes will Prevenar 13 vaccine protect against?

There are many different Pneumococcal bacteria serotypes and about 90 distinct pneumococcal serotypes have been identified throughout the world. Prevenar 13 protects against Pneumococcal serotypes: 1, 3, 4, 5 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F and 23F. Of special attention is serotype 3 which is known to cause invasive pneumococcal disease. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine such as Prevenar 13 contain polysaccharides from 7 serotypes covering 65–80% of serotypes associated with invasive pneumococcal disease.

Who are recommended to receive Pneumococcal vaccination?

Younger than 2-year-old

  • Who have certain illnesses (sickle cell disease, HIV infection, diabetes, immune compromising conditions, nephrotic syndrome, or chronic heart, lung, kidney, or liver disease)
  • With cochlear implants or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks (escape of the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord)

Adults at risk for Pneumococcal disease:

  • Adults 65 years or older are at increased risk for pneumococcal disease.
  • Some adults 19 through 64 years old are also at increased risk for pneumococcal disease, including those:

    • With chronic illnesses (chronic heart, liver, kidney, chronic obstructive lung disease, emphysema, asthma, diabetes or alcoholism)
    • With conditions that weaken the immune system (HIV/AIDS, cancer, or damaged/absent spleen)
    • With cochlear implants or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks (escape of the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord)
    • Who smoke cigarettes

Will a Pneumococcal vaccine protect me against COVID-19?

Vaccines against pneumonia, such as pneumococcal vaccine and Haemophilus influenza type B (Hib) vaccine, do not provide protection against the new coronavirus.

The virus is so new and different that it needs its own vaccine. Researchers are trying to develop a vaccine against COVID-19, and WHO is supporting their efforts.

Although these vaccines are not effective against COVID-19, vaccination against respiratory illnesses is highly recommended to protect your health.

Can I have Pneumococcal pneumonia and COVID-19 at the same time?

Yes. It is possible to have Pneumococcal pneumonia, as well as other respiratory illnesses, and COVID-19 at the same time. However Pneumococcal pneumonia is caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae while COVID19 is caused by a virus, the SARS-CoV2. Health experts are still studying how common this can be. Some of the symptoms of Pneumonia and COVID-19 are similar, making it hard to tell the difference between them based on symptoms alone.

Is COVID-19 more dangerous than Pneumococcal pneumonia?

Pneumococcal pneumonia and COVID-19 can both result in serious illness, including illness resulting in hospitalization or death. While there is still much to learn about COVID-19, at this time, it does seem as if COVID-19 is more deadly Pneumococcal pneumonia; however, it is too early to draw any conclusions from the current data. This may change as we learn more about the number of people who are infected who have mild illnesses.

What are the benefits of PCV (Prevenar 13) vaccination?

The vaccine helps protect against the 13 types of pneumococcal bacteria that most commonly cause serious infections in children and adults. It can also help prevent ear infections and pneumonia caused by those 13 types of pneumococcal bacteria.

Are there any contraindications in the use of Prevenar 13 vaccine?

Hypersensitivity to any component of the vaccine, including Diphtheria toxoid. Immunization shall be postponed in patients suffering from acute severe febrile illness.

What is the Method of Administration?

Immunization should be carried out by intramuscular injection only.

Are there special warnings and precautions for the use of Flu vaccine?

  • For Adults 18 to 49 years of age: No data are currently available regarding concomitant use with other vaccines.

    For Adults 50 years and older: Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine 13-Valent can be concomitantly with trivalent or quadrivalent influenza vaccine.

  • If Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine 13-Valent Vaccine is given at the same time as other vaccines, immunization should always be given at different vaccination sites.
  • Pregnancy: Safety during pregnancy has not been established. However, as a precaution, women who need the vaccine should get it before becoming pregnant, if possible.
  • Breastfeeding: Safety during lactation has not been established.

What are the adverse reactions reported with PCV 13 Vaccine use?

For adults 18 years and older

Very common (≥ 1/10) Decreased appetite, headache, diarrhea, vomiting (adults aged 18-49 years), rash, generalized new/aggravated joint pain, generalized new/aggravated muscle pain, chills, fatigue, vaccination-site erythema, vaccination-site induration/swelling, vaccination-site pain/tenderness, limitation of arm movement
Common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10) Vomiting (in adults 50 years and older)
Uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100) Hypersensitivity reaction including face edema, dyspnea, bronchospasm, nausea, lymphadenopathy localized to the region of the vaccination site.

Paalala

Mga Karaniwang Mararamdaman o "Side Effects" Kasunod ng Pagbabakuna ng Flu at Pneumococcal vaccines.

  • Pagsakit ng braso
  • Pamumula sa pinagturukan ng karayom
  • Lagnat
  • Sakit ng Ulo
  • Pagkaramdam ng pagod
  • Sakit ng kalamnan

Mga maaring gawin:

Ang pag-eehersisyo sa braso o pag-aaplay ng isang malamig na "pack" ay makakabawas ng sakit at makakapagpaginhawa sa nararamdaman; huwag kakamutin ang namumulang balat; kung kinakailangan ay maaring uminom ng Paracetamol upang mapagaan ang sakit. Uminom ng sapat na dami ng tubig. Ang mga sintomas ay maaring magsimula ng 6-12 na oras pagkatapos ng pagbabakuna.

Sobrang Bihirang "Side Effects" Kasunod ng Pagbabakuna sa Flu at Pneumococcal

  • Kapos sa paghinga
  • Paghigpit ng pakiramdam sa dibdib
  • Nanghihinang pakiramdam o pagkawala ng malay
  • Pamamaga ng mga labi
  • Pamamantal sa balat

Mga maaring gawin:

Kung nangyari ang alinman sa mga sintomas na ito, maari kang magkaroon ng matinding reaksyon sa bakuna. Ito ay isang pang-medikal na emergency! Tumawag ng TULONG! At pumunta sa pinakamalapit na emergency clinic o ospital. Iulat ang anumang reaksyon sa iyong doktor.